A paradigm is in both, the way a thing is and a way of looking at that thing. A paradigm shift is a shift in both. You can’t withdraw the episteme and still be left with something.

Here is the example of a famous paradigm shift:

The Object paradigm is in observing an entity and its field as two discontinuous but coexisting and complementary levels of a same work. First order observation where both the viewer and the context are excluded and second order observation where both are included with the object. Object art is not a return to the object (before post-object art) it is the return of the object turned inside-out (ensuing post-object art). Object art is not stirred by a new visual form but by a different way of looking at a commonplace form.


Kuhn’s famous example of a paradigm shift. “Like the gestalt switch, it must occur all at once (though not necessarily in an instant) or not at all.” (1962)